|Dom Pedro II|
Leaderof the Brazilian Empire
|Wonder construction||20% chance|
|Attitude|| +1 (base)|
0 (warmonger respect)
|Full war||300 (100% ratio near, 80% ratio far, 2% ratio adjacent)|
|Limited war||160 (90% power ratio)|
Dom Pedro II is one of the leaders of the Brazilian Empire.
Pedro became Emperor of Brazil when he was only 5. His father Pedro I abdicated the throne on April 7, 1831, after violent protests in Brazil against his careless handling of internal affairs, to fight a civil war in Portugal. The aim of the war in Portugal was to restore Maria II, older sister of Pedro II, as Queen of Portugal. He eventually managed in doing so, having thus a 15-years-old daughter on the throne of Portugal, and a 9-years-old son on the throne of Brazil.
Pedro II ruled Brazil for 49 years under the slogan "União e Indústria" (Union and Industry). The period saw the beginnings of industrialization, the first paved roads, the first steam-engine railway, a submarine telegraphy cable, and the introduction of the telephone. Liberal in outlook, Pedro II took steps to end slavery; the final abolition edict, the Golden Law, was signed in his absence by his daughter Princess Isabel, on May 13, 1888. Pedro II also took pains to learn Guarani, the most widely spoken indigenous language in 19th century Brazil. He was widely respected by Brazilians of all social levels as an enlightened monarch who ruled in a principled, rational, moderate fashion.
He nonetheless retained extensive power over the Brazilian government. Under the Brazilian Constitution of 1824, the emperor possessed "Poder Moderator" (Moderating Power), i.e. the power to temper the will of Brazil's representative government. In practice, this meant that Pedro II had the right to veto legislation, dissolve the lower house of the legislature (the only one that was elected), and call new elections at his pleasure. Pedro II generally respected the wishes of the electorate, but his favoritism towards the Conservative party in 1868 marred his reputation for even-handedness. The unexpectedly long and costly Paraguayan War of 1865-1870 also diminished his popularity.
Pedro II died on December 5, 1891 in Paris, France. He and his wife's remains were taken to Brazil in 1922, and were reburied in Petropolis, their former summer residence, in 1939.